SEISMIC DATA INVERSION BY CROSS-HOLE TOMOGRAPHY USING GEOMETRICALLY UNIFORM SPATIAL COVERAGE

Armando Luis Imhof, Carlos Adolfo Calvo, Juan Carlos Santamarina

Abstract


ABSTRACT

One of the inversion schemes most employed in seismic tomography processing is least squares and derived algorithms, using as input data the vector of first arrivals. A division of the whole space between sources and receivers is performed, constructing a pixel model with its elements of the same size. Spatial coverage is defined, then, as the sum of traveled length by all rays through every pixel that conform the medium considered. It is related, therefore, with the source-receiver's distribution and the form of the domain among them. In cross-hole array, rays do not evenly sample the properties of the medium, leading to non-uniform spatial coverage. It is known that this affects the inversion process. The purpose of this paper, then, was to study the problem of spatial coverage uniformity to obtain travel path matrices leading to inversion algorithms with better convergence. The medium was divided in elements of different size but with an even spatial coverage (named as 'ipixels'), and then it was explored how this improved the inversion process. A theoretical model was implemented with added noise to emulate real data; and then the vector of measured times was generated with known velocity distribution. Afterwards an inversion method using minimum length solution was performed to test the two domain divisions. The results showed that the fact of using ipixels not only improved the inversion scheme used in all cases; but in addition allowed to get convergence where it was impossible to do using pixels; particularly through the method considered. This is a direct result of the improvement of condition number of the associated matrices.

Keywords :seismic tomography; cross-hole; spatial coverage; pixel; ipixel.

RESUMEN

Uno de los esquemas de inversion más empleados en el procesamiento de datos de tomografía sísmica es ei de mínimos cuadrados y algoritmos relacionados, utilizando el vector de primeros arribos como datos de entrada. Se Neva a cabo una division del dominio completo entre emisores y receptores, con el objeto de disenar un modelo de píxeles dei mismo tamano. Se define Ia cobertura espacial como Ia suma de los tiempos de viaje de todos los rayos en cada uno de los píxeles que conforman el medio. Por Io tanto este parâmetro está relacionado con Ia distribución emisor-receptor y con la forma dei dominio entre los mismos. En ei dispositivo cross-hole los rayos no muestrean de igual forma ai medio, conduciendo a una cobertura espacial no uniforme. Se sabe que este inconveniente afecta ei proceso de inversion. El propósito de este artículo fué ei de estudiar ei problema de Ia uniformidad de Ia cobertura espacial a fin de lograr matrices de tiempo de viaje que conduzcan a algoritmos de inversion con mejor convergência. El medio se dividió en elementos de diferente tamano pero con cobertura espacial uniforme (denominados 'ipixels'). Se implemento un modelo teórico con ruido a fin de simular datos reales; y el vector de tiempos se calculo con una distribución conocida de velocidades. Luego se probo Ia convergência de Ias dos formas de division del dominio utilizando ei método de solución por mínima longitud del vector de tiempos. Los resultados demostraron que ei hecho de emplear ipixels no solo mejoró la inversion en todos los casos, sino además permitió lograr convergência en casos donde resultó imposible utilizando pixeles; particularmente con el método utilizado. Este es un resultado directo dei aumento de Ia condición de las matrices asociadas.

Keywords :tomografía sísmica; cross-hole; cobertura espacial; pixeles; ipixeles.



Keywords


seismic tomography; cross-hole; spatial coverage; pixel; ipixel









Brazilian Journal of Geophysics - BrJG (online version): ISSN 2764-8044
a partir do v.30n.1 (2012) até o presente

Revista Brasileira de Geofísica - RBGf (online version): ISSN 1809-4511
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Revista Brasileira de Geofísica - RBGf (printed version): ISSN 0102-261X
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